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Table 1 Clinical, echocardiographic and biochemical characteristics

From: The interplay between metabolic alterations, diastolic strain rate and exercise capacity in mild heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

  HFpEF (n = 27) Healthy Controls (n = 14) P value
Age (years) 72 ± 7 69 ± 6 0.09
Female, n (%) 18 (67) 8 (57) 0.55
NYHA class, n (%)
 I 0 14 (100) < 0.001
 II 24 (89) 0 < 0.001
 III 3 (11) 0 < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 29 ± 6 26 ± 5 0.10
Hypertension, n (%) 12 (44) 0 0.04
Atrial fibrillation, n (%) 0 0
Beta blockers, n (%) 3 (11) 0 0.53
ARB/ACE inhibitor, n (%) 14 (52) 0 0.004
Diuretics, n (%) 12 (44) 0 0.005
Statins, n (%) 11 (41) 0 0.02
Systolic BP (mmHg) 144 ± 26 132 ± 4 0.15
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 81 ± 12 80 ± 13 0.86
Heart rate (bpm) 68 ± 12 60 ± 12 0.10
E/A ratio 0.69 ± 0.23 0.86 ± 0.24 0.042
E/e’ ratio 10.87 ± 2.61 7.47 ± 2.45 < 0.001
LA size (ml/m2) 31.1 ± 15.4 16.9 ± 6.4 0.003
VO2 max (ml/min/kg) 17.7 ± 3.3 27.8 ± 7.7 0.004
Blood glucose (mmol/L) 5.4 ± 0.9 4.8 ± 0.4 0.07
Free fatty acids (mmol/L) 0.49 ± 0.28 0.54 ± 0.19 0.10
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.26 ± 0.37 1.13 ± 0.45 0.44
LDL (mmol/L) 2.45 ± 0.71 3.17 ± 1.05 0.03
HDL (mmol/L) 1.52 ± 0.41 1.60 ± 0.41 0.59
BNP (pmol/L) 15.6 ± 9.4 6.8 ± 3.8 0.01
  1. Values are mean ± SD or percentages
  2. ACE Angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitors, ARB Angiotensin-receptor antagonist-II, BNP Brain natriuretic peptide, HDL High-density lipoprotein, HFpEF Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, LDL Low-density lipoprotein