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Table 1 Patient Characteristics

From: Direct measurement of atrioventricular valve regurgitant jets using 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance is accurate and reliable for children with congenital heart disease: a retrospective cohort study

 Mitral regurgitationTricuspid regurgitationAllp-value
(n = 18)(n = 26)(n = 44)
Age (years)12.6 ± 7.810.7 ± 5.011.4 ± 6.30.370
Sex (F)8 (44%)15 (58%)23 (52%)0.387
Race
 Caucasian9 (50%)8 (31%)17 (39%)0.543
 African American 1 (4%)1 (2%)
 Hispanic6 (33%)11 (42%)17 (39%)
 Asian3 (17%)6 (23%)9 (20%)
Height (cm)141.6 ± 36.3133.7 ± 28.4136.9 ± 31.70.420
Weight (kg)49.2 ± 32.243.2 ± 34.045.7 ± 33.00.562
Aliasing of the jet12 (67%)11 (42%)23 (52%)0.112
Number of regurgitant jets
 113 (72%)21 (81%)34 (77%)0.654
 23 (17%)4 (15%)7 (16%)
 31 (6%)1 (4%)2 (5%)
 51 (6%) 1 (2%)
Regurgitation
 Mild (< 30%)13 (72%)14 (54%)27 (61%)0.140
 Moderate (31–39%) 3 (11%)3 (7%)
 Moderate-Severe (40–49%)1 (6%)6 (23%)7 (16%)
 Severe (> 50%)4 (22%)3 (11%)7 (16%)
Cardiac Condition
 Bacterial endocarditis2 (11%) 2 (5%) 
 ccTGA1 (6%)2 (8%)3 (7%) 
 Atrioventricular septal defect5 (28%)1 (4%)6 (14%) 
 Dysplastic tricuspid valve 1 (4%)1 (2%) 
 Ebstein anomaly 8 (31%)8 (18%) 
 HLHS s/p Glenn 2 (8%)2 (5%) 
 HLHS s/p Fontan 4 (15%)4 (9%) 
 HOCM1 (6%) 1 (2%) 
 PA/IVS s/p Fontan1 (6%) 1 (2%) 
 Mitral Valve Prolapse6 (34%) 6 (14%) 
 Pulmonary hypertension 7 (27%)7 (16%) 
 Pulmonary stenosis 1 (4%)1 (2%) 
 Shone complex1 (6%) 1 (2%) 
 Supramitral ring1 (6%) 1 (2%) 
 Shunt ratio (Qp:Qs)1.0 ± 0.080.97 ± 0.110.98 ± 0.100.956
Genetic syndromes
 Marfan Syndrome2 (11%)1 (4%)3 (7%) 
 Pierre Robin syndrome1 (6%) 1 (2%) 
 Trisomy 211 (6%) 1 (2%) 
 Turner syndrome 1 (4%)1 (2%) 
Field Strength
 1.5 T8 (44%)17 (65%)25 (57%)0.168
 3 T10 (56%)9 (35%)19 (43%)
Contrast
 Gadobenate5 (27%)11 (42%)16 (36%)0.200
 Gadofosveset1 (6%)4 (15%)5 (11%)
 Ferumoxytol9 (50%)11 (42%)20 (45%)
 No contrast1 (6%) 1 (2%)
  1. p-values refer to comparisons between mitral and tricuspid regurgitation groups. Severity of regurgitation is classified based on VOL measurements. Continuous variables compared with Student’s t-test, categorical variables compared with Pearson’s chi-square test. F indicates female, cm centimeters, kg kilograms, BSA body surface area, m2 meters squared, ccTGA congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, VOL volumetric method