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Table 1 Clinical characteristics, laboratory measurements, complications during hospitalization and treatment before discharge of recovered COVID-19 patients

From: Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 patients: mid-term follow up by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

Characteristic Total COVID-19 patients (n = 44) LGE (N = 13) Non-LGE (N = 31) P-value
Age (years) 47.6 ± 13.3 53.2 ± 14.5 45.2 ± 12.43 0.07
Gender 19 (43.2%) 4 (30.8%) 15 (48.4%) 0.34
BSA (kg/m2) 1.76 ± 0.19 1.73 ± 0.17 1.77 ± 0.2 0.63
Heart rate (bpm) 66.2 ± 11.7 64.1 ± 6.8 67.0 ± 13.2 0.32
Time between hospital discharge and CMR (days) 102.5 ± 20.6 100.8 ± 20.3 103.3 ± 21.0 0.72
Regular exercise 10 (22.7%) 3 (23.1%) 7 (22.6%) 1.0
Smoke 1 (2.3%) 0 1 (3.2%) NA
Alcohol 3 (6.8%) 1 (7.7%) 2 (6.5%) 1.0
NYHA I/II/III/IV 21/13/8/2 4/5/3/1 17/8/5/1 0.52
Clinical COVID-19 pneumonia types, moderate/severe/critical 32/11/1 7/5/1 25/6/0 0.10
Comorbidities
Hypertension 11 (25.0%) 5 (38.5%) 6 (19.4%) 0.18
Diabetes mellites 8 (18.2%) 2 (15.4%) 6 (19.4%) 1.0
Hyperlipidemia 16 (36.4%) 3 (23.1%) 13 (41.9%) 0.31
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 0 0 0 NA
Cerebrovascular disease 0 0 0 NA
Chronic renal diseases 0 0 0 NA
Hepatitis B 2 (4.6%) 1 (7.7%) 1(3.2%) 0.51
Laboratory findings
CPK (u/l)* 69 (14–141) 57 (45–167) 76 (45–142) 0.85
CKMB (ng/ml)* 0.33 (0.18–0.64) 0.32 (0.11–0.73) 0.33 (0.19–0.64) 0.86
MYO (ng/ml) 56.8 ± 42.7 66.9 ± 59.7 52.6 ± 33.6 0.31
TnI (ng/ml)* 0.02 (0.01–0.02) 0.02 (0.01–0.04) 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 0.04
CRP (mg/l) 43 ± 43 55 ± 54 38 ± 37 0.24
Potassium (mmol/l) 3.8 ± 0.3 3.7 ± 0.3 3.8 ± 0.3 0.24
Calcium (mmol/l) 1.3 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.2 0.33
Other complications during hospitalization
cardiac arrythmia 0 0 0 NA
Renal injury 4 (9.1%) 1 (7.7%) 3 (9.7%) 1.0
Liver injury 19 (43.2%) 5 (38.5%) 14 (45.2%) 0.68
Treatment before discharge     
Antiviral therapy 24 (54.5%) 9 (69.2%) 15 (48.4%) 0.21
Antibiotic therapy 12 (27.3%) 5 (38.5%) 7 (22.6%) 0.28
Corticosteroids 13 (29.6%) 6 (46.2%%) 7 (22.6%) 0.12
Non-invasive ventilation of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen 10 (22.7%) 5 (38.5%) 5 (16.1%) 0.11
Intravenous immunoglobulin 2 (4.6%) 1 (7.7%) 1 (3.2%) 0.51
ACEI/ARB 2 (4.6%) 1 (7.7%) 1 (3.2%) 0.51
  1. Boldface characters indicate p < 0.05
  2. ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, BSA body surface area, CMR cardiovascular magnetic resonance, CPK creatine phosphokinase, CRP C-reactive protein, LGE late gadolinium enhancement, MYO myohemoglobin, NYHA New York Heart Association, TnI troponin I
  3. *Median (IQR)