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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Prevalence of abnormal cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in recovered patients from COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author (year) Journal Study design Study sites (countries) Patient description Study period Population (n) Reason for exclusion (n) Number of patients including in the analysis Age (years) Sex (n, male/female) Diagnosis of COVID-19 by RT-PCR Other tests for cardiac evaluation Presence of cardiac symptoms at the time of CMR Cardiac enzyme level at the time of CMR Population restricted to athletes CMR field strength CMR scan time CMR sequences
Ng et al. (2020) JACC Cardiovasc Imaging Retrospective, single-center, observational Hong Kong Recovered COVID-19 patients NA 16 Ischemic etiology (1) 15 Median 68 (IQR: 53–69) 9/7 Yes Troponin, CRP Various (5/16) Undetermined No 1.5 T (GE) Median 56 days after recovery Cine, Mapping (T1 and T2), LGE
Huang et al. (2020) JACC Cardiovasc Imaging Retrospective, single-center, observational China Recovered COVID-19 patients NA 26 None 26 Median 38 (IQR: 32–45) 10/16 Yes hs-troponin I assay Yes (26) Normal (26) No 3 T (Skyra, Siemens) Median 47 days (IQR: 36–58) after symptom onset Cine, T2WI, mapping (T1 and T2), LGE
Rajpal et al. (2020) JAMA Cardiol Prospective, single-center, observational U.S Athletes recovered from COVID-19 Between June 2020 and August 2020 26 None 26 Mean 19.5 (SD: 1.5) 16/10 Yes ECG, troponin I assay, echocardiography Various (12/26) Normal (26) Yes 1.5 T (Magnetom Sola, Siemens) 11–53 days after recommended quarantine Cine, mapping (T1 and T2), LGE, ECV
Knight et al. (2020) Circulation Retrospective, single-center, observational England Recovered COVID-19 Until April 2020 51 Acute coronary syndromes (6) pulmonary emboli (12), or known cardiac pathology (7) 29 Mean (SD) 64 (9) 24/5 Yes NR Yes (29) Undetermined No 1.5 T (Avanto Aera;Siemens) Mean 46 days after symptom onset Cine, Mapping (T1 and T2), LGE, Adenosine stress perfusion
Puntmann et al. (2020) JAMA Cardiol Prospective, single-center, observational Germany Recovered COVID-19 patients Between April 2020 and June 2020 100 None 100 Mean 49 (SD: 14) 53/47 Yes Hs-troponin T assay Various (36/100) Undetermined No 3 T (Skyra, Siemens) Median 71 (IQR 64–92) after COVID-19 diagnosis Cine, Mapping (T1 and T2) LGE
Eiros et al. (2020) MedRxiv Retrospective, single-center observational Spain Recovered COVID-19 patients (health care workers) Between May 25, 2020 and June 12, 2020 142 Claustrophobia (1),history of hypertrophic myocardiopathy (1), inherited immune deficiency (1) 139 Median 52 (IQR: 41–57) 39/100 103 diagnosed by RT-PCR, 36 by serology ECG; NT-pro-BNP and hs-troponin T assays Various (91/139) Normal (138), elevated (1) No 1.5 T (Achiva, Philips) Median 10.4 (IQR: 9.3–11.0) weeks after symptom onsetb Cine, T2WI Mapping (T1 and T2), LGE
Vago et al. (2020) JACC Cardiovasc Imaging Retrospective, single-center observational Hungary Athletes recovered from COVID-19 NA 12 None 12 Median 23 (IQR: 20–23) 2/10 Yes CRP, NT-pro-BNP, and hs-troponin T assays Yes (12) Normal (11), undetermined (1) Yes 1.5 T (Magnetom, Aera, Siemens) Median 17 (IQR: 17–19) days after positive PCR in 10 female athletes, 67 and 90 days in 2 male athletes Cine, T2WI, mapping (T1 and T2), LGE
Brito et al. (2020) JACC Cardiovasc Imaging Retrospective, single-center observational U.S Student athletes recovered from COVID-19 By August 2020 54 Claustrophobia (1), no CMR (5) 48 Median 19 (range 19–21)a 46/8a PCR or antibody test Echocardiography, troponin I assay, ECG Various (37/48) Undetermined Yes 1.5 T (Magnetom, Aera; Siemens) Median 27 days (range 22–33 days) from diagnosis of COVID-19 Cine, T2WI, mapping (T1 and T2), LGE
Clark et al. (2021) Circulation Retrospective, single-center, observational U.S Athletes recovered from COVID-19 Since August 2020 22 None 22 Median 20 9/11 Yes ECG, troponin I assay, echocardiography NR Normal (18) Yes 1.5 T (Avanto fit, Siemens) Median 52 days after COVID-19 diagnosis Cine, mapping (T1 and T2), LGE, ECV
Malek et al. (2021) J Magn Reson Imaging Retrospective, single-center observational Germany Student athletes recovered from COVID-19 Diagnosed COVID-19 between August and October 2020 26 None 26 Median 19 (IQR 19–21) 5/21 Yes ECG, CRP, hs-troponin I assay NR Normal (26) Yes 1.5 T (Magnetom Avanto Fit, Siemens) Median 32 days (IQR 22–62 days) after diagnosis Cine, T2WI, Mapping (T1 and T2), LGE
Li et al. (2021) Radiology Prospective, single-center, observational China Recovered COVID-19 patients Between May and September 2020 78 Due to discharge < 90 days (n = 5), abnormal cardiac enzyme (n = 3), abnormal ECG findings (n = 4), not underwent CMR (n = 16), history of cardiovascular disease or HTN (7), contrast allergy (1), image quality (2) 40 Mean 54 (SD: 12) 24/160 Yes ECG, CRP, CK, CKMB Troponin I assays No Normal (40) No 3 T (Skyra, Siemens) Mean 124 ± 17 days after discharge, Mean 158 ± 18 after admission Cine, LGE, Strain
Starekova et al. (2021) JAMA Cardiology Retrospective, single-center observational U.S Athletes recovered from COVID-19 Between January 1, 2020, and November 29, 2020 145 none 145 Mean 20 (range: 17–23) 108/37 Yes ECG, Troponin I, NT-proBNP, CRP, ESR assays and echocardiography Various (1/145) Normal (141), elevated (2) Yes 1.5 T or 3 T (GE) Median 15 days after diagnosis Cine, T2WI, Mapping (T1 and T2), LGE
Wang et al. (2021) J Cardiovasc Magn Reson Prospective, single-center, observational China Recovered COVID-19 patients From May 8 to July 20, 2020 47 History of cardiovascular disease (3) 44 Mean 47.6 (SD: 13.3) 19/25 Yes NR NR Undetermined No 3 T (Ingenia, Philips) Mean 102.5 ± 20.6 days after diagnosis Cine, T2WI, T2 star map, LGE, strain
Pan et al. (2021) J Magn Reson Imaging Prospective, single-center observational China Recovered COVID-19 patients Between March 2020 and April 2020 31 History of cardiovascular disease, presence of cardiac symptoms, or elevated cardiac enzymes (10) 21 Median 36 (IQR: 31–47) 10/11 Yes NR No Undetermined No 3 T (Signa, GE) Median 46 day (IQR 43–50 days) Cine, T2WI, Mapping (T1 and T2)
Zhou et al. (2021) Plos one Prospective, single-center, observational Hong Kong Recovered COVID-19 patients Diagnosed up to April 2020 97 No CMR (85) 12 Mean 46.5 (SD:18.6)a 52/45a Yes ECG, Troponin I, NT-proBNP assay and echocardiography NR Normal (7), elevated (4) No NR NR Cine, T2WI, LGE
Kotecha et al. (2021) Eur Heart J Retrospective, Multicenter study U.K Recovered COVID-19 patients Discharged up to 20 June 2020 820 No CMR (672) 148 Mean 64 (SD:12) 104/44 Yes NR NR Undetermined No 1.5 T (Magnetom, Aera, Siemens) Median 56 days (IQR 30–88 days) after discharge Cine, Mapping (T1 and T2), LGE, stress perfusion
  1. CMR cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, CRP C-reactive protein, ECG electrocardiography, ECV extracellular volume, hs-troponin T high-sensitivity troponin T, IQR interquartile range, LGE late gadolinium enhancement, NA not available, NR not reported, NT-pro-BNP N-terminal pro-natriuretic peptide, PCR polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR real-time polymerase chain reaction, SD standard deviation, T2w T2-weighted imaging, US United States, WBC white blood count
  2. aOnly provided value of the entire study population
  3. bMedian 9.4 weeks (IQR: 8.1–10.0 weeks) and median 4.4 weeks (IQR: 3.6–5.0 weeks) after the positive RT-PCR test and diagnosed through antibodies testing, respectively