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Table 3 Pooled prevalence of abnormal CMR findings

From: Prevalence of abnormal cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in recovered patients from COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Parameter (number of studies) Overall Study population Cardiac enzyme level
Prevalence (%) Heterogeneity* Non-athletes (n = 10) Athletes (n = 6) Normal (n = 9) Undetermined (n = 8)
Prevalence (%) Heterogeneity* Prevalence (%) Heterogeneity* Prevalence (%) Heterogeneity* Prevalence (%) Heterogeneity*
Abnormal CMR findings (n = 16) 46.4 [43.2–49.7]  < 0.01, 95% 62.5 [58.5–66.4] (n = 10)  < 0.01 86% 17.1 [13.3–21.7] (n = 6)  < 0.01, 92% 35.9 [31.7–40.3] (n = 9)  < 0.01, 95% 59.4 [54.5–64.04] (n = 8)  < 0.01, 77%
Diagnosis of myocarditis on CMR (n = 12) 14.0 [11.6–16.8]  < 0.01, 93% 23.9 [19.8–28.5] (n = 6)  < 0.01, 85% 2.5 [01.3–5.0] (n = 6) 0.11, 64% 15.2 [12.1–19.0] (n = 8)  < 0.01, 90% 12.0 [8.5–16.8] (n = 5)  < 0.01, 90%
Presence of pericardial LGE (n = 14) 5.0 [3.8–6.7]  < 0.01, 94% 4.1 [2.7–6.1] (n = 8)  > 0.99, 98% 6.7 [4.4–10.0] (n = 6)  < 0.01, 86% 10.4 [7.1–15.1] (n = 5)  < 0.01, 88% 24.8 [20.6–29.6] (n = 7)  < 0.01, 96%
Presence of myocardial LGE (n = 15) 20.7 [18.1–23.5]  < 0.01, 93% 28.8 [25.2–32.7] (n = 9)  < 0.01, 92% 6.7 [4.4–10.0] (n = 6)  < 0.01, 82% 8.6 [6.0–12.1] (n = 8)  < 0.01, 83% 36.5 [31.8–41.4] (n = 7)  < 0.01, 93%
Presence of LGE (myocardial or pericardial) (n = 13) 20.5 [17.7–23.6]  < 0.01, 92% 28.1 [24.1–32.4] (n = 8)  < 0.01, 92% 7.8 [5.2–11.7] (n = 5)  < 0.01, 84% 8.3 [5.8–11.8] (n = 8)  < 0.01, 85% 45.5 [39.2–51.9] (n = 5)  < 0.01, 75%
Increased native T1 value on the T1 map (n = 10) 26.3 [23.1–29.8]  < 0.01, 97% 39.8 [35.2–44.6] (n = 5)  < 0.01, 92% 4.4 [2.4–7.7] (n = 5) 0.02, 81% 1.0 [0.1–8.7] (n = 4)  > 0.99, 0% 35.7 [30.7–41.1] (n = 6)  < 0.01, 88%
T2 abnormality (n = 12) 16.9 [14.3–19.8]  < 0.01, 94% 22.9 [19.3–26.9] (n = 7)  < 0.01, 95% 4.4 [2.4–8.0] (n = 5) 0.08, 75% 10.4 [7.1–15.1] (n = 5)  < 0.01, 88% 24.8 [20.6–29.6] (n = 7)  < 0.01, 96%
T2 abnormality without LGE (n = 8) 4.0 [2.3–6.7] 0.98, 91% 12.9 [6.8–22.9] (n = 3) 0.061, 73% 1.6 [0.6–4.1] (n = 5)  > 0.99, 90% 5.7 [3.3–9.5] (n = 5)  < 0.01, 83% 2.2 [0.5–8.2] (n = 4)  > 0.99, 76%
Presence of myocardial LGE without T2 abnormality (n = 7) 4.0 [2.3–7.0] 0.01, 58% 3.8 [0.2–46.6] (n = 3) 0.85, 0% 4.1 [2.2–7.4] (n = 4)  < 0.01, 71% 4.4 [2.4–8.0] (n = 5)  < 0.01, 64% 1.6 [0–100] (n = 2)  > 0.99, 0%
Pericardial effusion (n = 11) 15.7 [13.2–18.5]  < 0.01, 93% 17.3 [14.1–21.0] (n = 6)  < 0.01, 86% 12.8 [9.3–17.5] (n = 5)  < 0.01, 89% 5.2 [3.0–9.0] (n = 5)  < 0.01, 75% 17.0 [13.4–21.4] (n = 6)  < 0.01, 91%
Ventricular systolic dysfunction on cine (n = 10) 4.7 [3.3–6.6] 0.17, 62% 7.4 [2.9–17.3] (n = 4) 0.28, 27% 1.3 [0.4.–4.5] (n = 6) 0.98, 0% NA NA 7.4 [3.1–16.8] (n = 4) 0.34, 22%
  1. Numbers in brackets represent 95% confidence intervals
  2. CMR cardiovascular magnetic resonance, LGE late gadolinium enhancement, n number of studies
  3. *Values indicate p-values for the Cochran Q test and I2