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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and CMR findings of the mitral stenosis cohort and controls

From: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance characterization of rheumatic mitral stenosis: findings from three worldwide endemic zones

Characteristics Mitral stenosis (n = 40) Controls (n = 20) P value
Demographics
Age 45 (34, 55) 54 (45, 62) 0.03
Female 30 (75%) 12 (60%) 0.23
Comorbidities
Coronary artery disease 0 (0%) 6 (30%)  < 0.001
Atrial fibrillation 17 (43%) 0 (0%)  < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus 3 (8%) 6 (30%) 0.02
Hypertension 5 (13%) 10 (50%) 0.002
Mitral valve area by PHT on echocardiography (cm2) (n = 28)
0.85 (0.73, 1.10)
Not applicable Not applicable
Symptoms prior to CMR
Dyspnea on exertion 24 (60%) 2 (10%)  < 0.001
Palpitations 17 (43%) 0 (0%)  < 0.001
Syncope 3 (8%) 1 (5%) 0.71
Angina 18 (46%) 2 (10%) 0.006
Vital signs prior to CMR
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 115 (108, 127) 130 (128, 150)  < 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 72 (67, 79) 80 (70, 90) 0.02
Heart rate (beats per minute) 80 (67, 99) 76 (56, 81) 0.03
Body surface area (m2) 1.60 (1.49, 1.70) 1.70 (1.58, 1.79) 0.01
CMR findings
Mitral valve area by planimetry (cm2) 1.17 (0.89, 1.56) 4.05 (3.73, 4.5)  < 0.001
LA maximal volume (mL/m2) 87 (67, 108) 29 (22, 34)  < 0.001
LA minimal volume (mL/m2) 68 (52, 88) 11 (8, 14)  < 0.001
LA emptying fraction (%) 20 (13, 30) 61 (51, 65)  < 0.001
RA maximal area (cm2) 20 (16, 23) 13 (12, 16)  < 0.001
LVEF (%) 51 (42, 55) 60 (57, 65)  < 0.001
LVEDV (mL) 114 (97, 151) 113 (94, 132) 0.48
LVEDVI (mL/m2) 72 (61, 93) 68 (57, 80) 0.17
LVESV (mL) 57 (43, 79) 40 (35, 59) 0.02
LVSVI (mL/m2) 35 (27, 49) 26 (20, 34) 0.004
LV stroke volume index (mL/m2) 36 (28, 44) 40 (36, 47) 0.16
Cardiac index (L/min/m2) 2.8 (2.4, 3.4) 2.8 (2.1, 3.5) 0.89
LV mass index (g/m2) 43 (34, 52) 33 (29, 44) 0.02
LV global longitudinal strain (%) (n = 20)
− 16 (− 18, − 14)
(n = 20)
− 20 (− 22, − 18)
 < 0.001
RVEF (%) 44 (40, 52) 64 (59, 67)  < 0.001
RVEDV (mL) 113 (98, 142) 93 (86, 116) 0.02
RVEDVI 72 (58, 87) 59 (49, 69) 0.003
RVESV (mL) 66 (46, 80) 33 (30, 39)  < 0.001
RVESVI 41 (29, 48) 19 (18, 23)  < 0.001
Wall motion abnormalities 0 (0%) 0 (0%) NS
LGE presence (n = 39)
32 (82%)
(n = 20)
1 (5%)
 < 0.001
Epicardial 0% 0% NS
Midmyocardial 32 (82%) 1 (5%)  < 0.001
Subendocardial 0 (0%) 0 (0%) NS
LGE – inferior RV insertion 31 (79%) 1 (5%)  < 0.001
LGE – superior RV insertion 5 (13%) 0 (0%) 0.006
  1. Data are shown as median (interquartile range) or n (%). CMR, cardiovascular magnetic resonance; LA, left atrium; LGE, late gadolinium enhancement; LVEDV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVEDVI left ventricular end-diastolic volume index; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESV, left ventricular end-systolic volume; LVESVI, left ventricular end-systolic volume index; LV, left ventricle; MS, mitral stenosis; MVA, mitral valve area; NS, not significant; PHT, pressure half-time; RA, right atrium; RV, right ventricle; RVEDV, right ventricular end-diastolic volume; RVEDVI, right ventricular end-diastolic volume index; RVEF, right ventricular ejection fraction; RVESV, right ventricular end-systolic volume; RVESVI, right ventricular end-systolic volume index