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Table 2 Clinical characteristics and CMR findings of the mitral stenosis cohort, stratified by country

From: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance characterization of rheumatic mitral stenosis: findings from three worldwide endemic zones

Characteristics China (n = 15) India (n = 19) Mexico (n = 6) P value
Demographics
Age (years) 55 (52, 64) 34 (24, 41) 53 (48, 65)  < 0.001
Female 12 (80%) 12 (63%) 6 (100%) 0.16
Comorbidities
Coronary artery disease 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) NS
Atrial fibrillation 11 (73%) 4 (21%) 2 (33%) 0.008
Diabetes 2 (13%) 0 (0%) 1 (17%) 0.22
Hypertension 2 (13%) 0 (0%) 3 (50%) 0.005
Mitral valve area by PHT on echocardiogram (cm2) (n = 4)
1.3 (0.7, 1.9)
(n = 18)
0.8 (0.7, 1)
(n = 6)
1.2 (0.9, 1.4)
0.16
PASP on echocardiogram (mmHg) 43 (30, 53) 38 (32, 42) 0.33
Symptoms prior to CMR
Dyspnea on exertion 3 (20%) 15 (79%) 6 (100%)  < 0.001
Palpitations 4 (27%) 9 (47%) 4 (67%) 0.21
Syncope 2 (13%) 0 (0%) 1 (17%) 0.22
Angina 14 (100%) 0 (0%) 4 (67%)  < 0.001
Vital signs prior to CMR     
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 110 (107, 118) 116 (112, 128) 121 (106, 135) 0.52
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 72 (69, 79) 72 (62, 80) 74 (51, 84) 0.79
Heart rate (beats per minute) 84 (74, 101) 80 (60, 103) 75 (66, 89) 0.64
Body surface area (m2) 1.63 (1.53, 1.72) 1.56 (1.47, 1.66) 1.72 (1.51, 1.80) 0.09
CMR findings     
Mitral valve area by planimetry (cm2) (n = 12)
1.9 (1.4, 2.2)
(n = 19)
1 (0.7, 1.2)
(n = 6)
1.3 (0.9, 1.6)
 < 0.004
LA maximal volume (mL/m2) 109 (90, 153) 80 (59, 98) 80 (68, 98) 0.008
LA minimal volume (mL/m2) 95 (63, 139) 59 (37, 83) 57 (52, 81) 0.03
LA emptying fraction (%) 17 (11, 30) 20 (13, 33) 24 (18, 27) 0.57
RA maximal area (cm2) 22 (16, 25) 17 (15, 22) 21 (19, 23) 0.12
LVEF (%) 48 (40, 56) 48 (41, 52) 63 (54, 67) 0.007
LVEDV (mL) 133 (103, 167) 105 (88, 136) 123 (106, 144) 0.24
LVEDVI (mL/m2) 74 (66, 94) 64 (58, 93) 72 (64, 92) 0.46
LVESV (mL) 76 (46, 93) 57 (45, 61) 42 (38, 64) 0.18
LVESVI (mL/m2) 43 (27, 51) 35 (31, 42) 27 (23, 36) 0.20
LV stroke volume index (mL/m2) 35 (27, 44) 33 (27, 42) 46 (38, 53) 0.08
Cardiac index (L/min/m2) 3.2 (2.6, 3.4) 2.5 (2.2, 3.5) 3.1 (2.6, 4.0) 0.26
LV mass index (g/m2) 50 (42, 63) 35 (30, 46) 44 (35, 54) 0.003
LV global longitudinal strain (%) Not performed (n = 14)
− 16 (− 17, − 14)
(n = 6)
− 16 (− 18, − 14)
0.62
RVEF (%) 43 (40, 54) 43 (36, 49) 49 (44, 59) 0.15
RVEDV (mL) 110 (86, 128) 124 (104, 147) 111 (96, 153) 0.32
RVEDVI (mL/m2) 65 (53, 77) 76 (68, 89) 72 (55, 89) 0.09
RVESV (mL) 61 (45, 73) 68 (59, 88) 57 (40, 89) 0.35
RVESVI (mL/m2) 35 (28, 46) 42 (40, 55) 36 (23, 51) 0.11
Wall motion abnormalities 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) NS
LGE presence (n = 14)
11 (79%)
(n = 19)
15 (79%)
(n = 6)
6 (100%)
0.46
Epicardial 0% 0% 0% NS
Midmyocardial 11 (79%) 15 (79%) 6 (100%) 0.46
Subendocardial 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) NS
LGE – inferior RV insertion 11 (79%) 15 (79%) 5 (83%) 0.97
LGE – superior RV insertion 4 (29%) 0 (0%) 1 (17%)  < 0.001
Native T1 (ms) (n = 9)
3 T scanner: 1275
(1236, 1340)
(n = 18)
1.5 T scanner:
990 (964, 1029)
Not applicable*
ECV (%) (n = 8)
28.6
(28.1, 29.4)
(n = 17)
27.3 (23.3, 30.4)
0.43
  1. Data are shown as median (interquartile range) or n (%). CMR, cardiovascular magnetic resonance; LA, left atrium; LGE, late gadolinium enhancement; LVEDV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVEDVI left ventricular end-diastolic volume index; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESV, left ventricular end-systolic volume; LVESVI, left ventricular end-systolic volume index; LV, left ventricle; MS, mitral stenosis; MVA, mitral valve area; NS, not significant; PHT, pressure half-time; RA, right atrium; RV, right ventricle; RVEDV, right ventricular end-diastolic volume; RVEDVI, right ventricular end-diastolic volume index; RVEF, right ventricular ejection fraction; RVESV, right ventricular end-systolic volume; RVESVI, right ventricular end-systolic volume index
  2. *Native T1 values performed on 3 T and 1.5 T scanners cannot be directly compared