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1000 Ventricular-vascular coupling is independently associated with exercise capacity in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: a cardiac multi-modality imaging study


Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction due to ischemic cardiomyopathy (I-CMP) leads to reduced exercise capacity. Ventricular-vascular coupling (VVC), a ratio of effective arterial to LV elastance, represents forward flow efficiency of LV, independent of mitral regurgitation.


In I-CMP patients, we sought to a) assess relationship between resting VVC and maximum oxygen consumption corrected for peak heart rate (MVO2/pHR), an accurate measure of exercise capacity in patients on β-blockers, and b) compare value of VVC versus other determinants of exercise capacity.


43 patients with I-CMP (age 59 ± 9 years, 88% on β-blocker) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR, 1.5 T Siemens Scanners, Erlangen Germany) for cardiac transplant evaluation. MVO2/pHR and diastolic filling variables (echocardiography) were measured in a standard fashion. CMR LV indices [end-systolic (ESV), end-diastolic (EDV), stroke volume (SV), all in ml, and LVEF] were measured using the standard contiguous short-axis slices from apex to base, using the balanced steady state free precession cine sequence (TE = 1.6 msec, TR = 3.3 msec, flip angle = 70° and slice thickness 8–10 mm, field of view varied from 228–330 in the x-direction and 260–330 in the y-direction and matrix size varied from 140–180 in the x-direction and 256 in the y-direction, giving a spatial resolution of 1.5–2.1 mm (x-direction) by 1.1–1.4 mm (y-direction). For patients able to suspend respiration, breath hold duration was 10–15 sec, depending on the heart rate; otherwise, images were acquired using 3 signal averages. Subsequently, off-line analysis was performed using Argus analytical software (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) to assess LV volumes and LVEF, in a standard fashion. VVC was calculated as: [Effective arterial elastance (end systolic pressure ÷ stroke volume index)/LV end-systolic elastance (end systolic pressure ÷ LV systolic volume index)].


Mean LVEF, ESV, EDV, and SV were 24 ± 8%, 228 ± 107 ml, 297 ± 111 ml, and 66 ± 20 ml respectively. Mean MVO2/pHR was 13 ± 3 ml/beat. Predictors of MVO2 are shown in Table 1. On stepwise regression, only VVC significantly predicted MVO2/pHR.

Table 1 Univariate and multivariate predictors pf MVO2/peak HR.


In I-CMP patients with LV dysfunction, VVC predicts MVO2/pHR that can potentially be used as a potential therapeutic target.

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Correspondence to Milind Y Desai.

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Open Access This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Wong, R.C., Dumont, C., Austin, B.A. et al. 1000 Ventricular-vascular coupling is independently associated with exercise capacity in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: a cardiac multi-modality imaging study. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 10, A125 (2008).

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  • Cardiac Magnetic Resonance
  • Exercise Capacity
  • Ischemic Cardiomyopathy
  • Stroke Volume Index
  • Peak Heart Rate