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Automatic delineation of myocardial contours in late-enhancement long-axis cardiac MR images


Viability assessment is essential for therapy planning following a myocardial infarction. In particular, the proportion of viable myocardium is a major factor in determining whether a patient may benefit from revascularization [1]. In addition to estimating the left ventricular myocardial thickness and thickening with functional imaging, it is possible to visualize normal and non-viable areas with high spatial resolution, using late-enhancement cardiac MR imaging (LECMR). To locate and quantify non-viable tissue, it is first necessary to delineate the endo- and epicardial contours on every available view of the LECMR acquisition. In particular long-axis (LA) views are useful because they provide a visualization of the apical area, which is often not well visible on or not covered well by short-axis slices. While manual delineation is a tedious and time-consuming task, its automation is challenging and, to our knowledge, not yet addressed by any publication or commercial product. This is mainly due to the non-homogeneous intensity of the myocardium resulting from contrast agent accumulation in infarcted areas.


We propose a novel method to delineate the endo- and epicardial contours in late-enhancement long-axis cardiac MR images with a minimal user-input in order to provide an accurate quantitative viability assessment.


Before running the automatic segmentation process, the user selects one enhancement type from four pre-defined ones (no enhancement, diffuse/small enhancement, large/transmural scar, sub-endocardial enhancement), depending on his own observation of the LA view.

Then the delineation of the myocardial contours is performed by alternating automatic deformation of a geometrical template and computation of a binary map of the enhanced areas. The template is ribbon-shaped with a variable width, its position is updated depending on image gray values. The map is a 2D binary image showing enhanced areas, it is updated by thresholding the image gray values in a region of interest centered on the endocardium, in order to include sub-endocardial scars. The segmentation is performed as follows: (1) automatic delineation of myocardial contours on short-axis LECMR slices [2], (2) initialization of the geometrical template position and binary map based on step (1) results, (3) iterative loop between geometrical template deformation and update of enhanced areas map: each new position of the template leads to a new map computation, which is then used to deform the template again.


The method was tested on 20 LA LECMR images acquired in a multi-center study between 2004–2007 (Philips Intera scanner 1.5 T, M FFE sequence, TE = 1.7 ms, TR = 4.5 ms, flip angle = 15°). All images are 256 × 256, with pixel size around 1.5 mm. Three experienced users manually delineated the myocardial contours to quantitatively assess the precision of the proposed method and evaluate inter-observer variability. The average error between the manual and automatic contours was 2.4 +/- 1.0 mm for the endocardium and 2.2 +/- 1.1 mm for the epicardium (see Table 1 for detailed results). The inter-observer variability was computed as an average distance from each manual contour to the other ones and was equal to 1.7 +/- 0.7 mm for the endocardium and 1.5 +/- 0.9 mm for the epicardium. As shown in Fig. 1, the visual quality is good, the contours successfully surround both normal and abnormal parts of the myocardium, which allows a reliable assessment of the percentage of non-viable tissue. Moreover, the accuracy (~1.5 pixel) is in the same range as inter-observer variability (>1 pixel). Remark: as accurate delineation of the valve plane is not required for viability assessment as long as myocardial contours are correct, it was not addressed in this study.

Table 1 Mean positioning error with respect to 3 manual contours and inter-observer variability. DRefi is the mean distance to reference contour number i
Figure 1

Final myocardium contours on 4 different patients.


We presented a robust and efficient method for the automatic delineation of the myocardial contours in long-axis LECMR images.


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Correspondence to Cybele Ciofolo.

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Open Access This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Ciofolo, C., Fradkin, M., Hautvast, G. et al. Automatic delineation of myocardial contours in late-enhancement long-axis cardiac MR images. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 11, P72 (2009).

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  • Viability Assessment
  • Epicardial Contour
  • Automatic Delineation
  • Myocardial Contour
  • Geometrical Template