- Oral presentation
- Open Access
Arrhythmia insensitive rapid cardiac T1 mapping pulse sequence
© Fitts et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
- Published: 30 January 2013
- Cardiac Fibrosis
- Saturation Recovery
- Adverse Remodel
- Diffuse Myocardial Fibrosis
- Rapid Heart Rate
Cardiac fibrosis is a known marker of adverse remodeling of the heart. Late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) T1 mapping is the only proven method to assess diffuse myocardial fibrosis. The most widely used LGE cardiac T1 mapping pulse sequence is MOLLI, which is based on inversion-recovery (IR) magnetization pre-conditioning and Look-Locker imaging. Unfortunately, MOLLI is sensitive to heart rate and rhythm and T2 effects and requires a long breath hold duration. We present an arrhythmia-insensitive, rapid (AIR) cardiac T1 mapping pulse sequence which is also insensitive to T2 effects.
We developed the AIR cardiac T1 mapping pulse sequence based on B1-insensitive saturation recovery (SR) magnetization pre-conditioning (insensitive to heart rate-rhythm) and two single-shot balanced steady-state free precession (b-SSFP) image acquisitions (proton density and T1-weighted) with centric k-space ordering (rapid, insensitive to T2 effects). We compared its performance against MOLLI in an arrhythmia phantom (T1 ranging from 500 - 2000 ms; 10 repetitions to assess repeatability) with an effective heart rate of 111 beat-per-minute (bpm) and in ten human subjects and 17 large animals in sinus rhythm pre-contrast and 5, 10, and 15 min post contrast agent (0.1 mmol/kg of Gd-BOPTA) administration.
Our findings in vitro and in vivo suggest that AIR is more accurate than MOLLI for cardiac T1 mapping. This rapid cardiac T1 mapping pulse sequence may be clinically useful for assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis in patients with rapid heart rates and/or in arrhythmia.
American Heart Association: 0730143N; Ben B. and Iris M. Margolis Foundation.
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