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- Open Access
Left atrial remodeling by MRI: comparison in patients with and without cardiovascular disease
© Peters et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
- Published: 16 January 2014
- Left Atrium
- Late Gadolinium Enhancement
- Pulmonary Vein Isolation
- Late Gadolinium Enhancement Image
- Scar Score
Pre-existent scar in the left atrium (LA) is hypothesized to be the arrhythmic substrate of atrial fibrillation (AF)[1, 2], and has been characterized in cardiac MR studies  using high resolution late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) . Recent pathology studies show that LA fibrosis extent is similar in patients with AF vs. other cardiovascular disease (CVD) , e.g. valvular disease, ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. Our aim was replicate these pathology findings by comparing patterns of enhancement on LGE in patients with and without CVD.
Forty-eight patients were imaged at our center on a 1.5T scanner (MAGNETOM Espree, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen), having good-quality LGE studies with visibly enhanced mitral valves, and no prior pulmonary vein isolation. Left atrial LGE was obtained using an ECG-triggered, navigator-gated 3D GRE inversion recovery (IR) sequence obtained 10-20 minutes after the administration of 0.2 mmol/kg of Gadobutrol, with spatial resolution of 1.5 × 1.4 × 3 mm3. A blinded assessment of enhancement/scar (0 = absent, 1 = present) was performed in an 18 segment model. Segments included 4 regions around each PV, and the LA posterior wall and inter-atrial septum. The total scar score was the % of enhanced segments. A chart review was performed to obtain clinical data.
Characteristics for patients with high and low scar scores.
High Scar Score
Low Scar Score
46 ± 19
46 ± 22
46 ± 16
51 ± 14
49 ± 18
52 ± 8
158 ± 39
153 ± 48
163 ± 30
27 ± 6
27 ± 6
29 ± 6
RA enlargement (%)*
LA enlargement (%)**
This retrospective analysis found that LA LGE was greater in subjects with CVD vs. those with no CVD, corroborating pathology studies of LA fibrosis. LA LGE enhancement was associated with atrial enlargement. Non-invasive LGE provides a potentially powerful tool for determining clinical factors implicated in LA fibrosis, which would add to the understanding of its causes.
NIH (NHLBI R21 HL 098573 & R21 HL103463).
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