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Reduced native right ventricular T1 in Anderson-Fabry disease as compared to patients with pulmonary hypertension


Recently, native (non-contrast) T1 mapping has demonstrated low left ventricular myocardial values in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease (FD)[1, 2], potentially due to accumulation of glycosphingolipids. Autopsy studies have shown biventricular involvement, however quantitative T1 imaging of the right ventricle (RV) has not been performed.


In images from 20 subjects with FD and 7 subjects with pulmonary hypertension (PH), the inferior RV wall was assessed for the appearance of hypertrophy, to identify subjects with sufficient wall thickness for T1 analysis. Images were acquired on 1.5T Siemens systems (Sonata and Avanto) using the SASHA T1 mapping method[3] for all studies: 70° flip angle, 1.31 ms echo time, 2.62 ms repetition time, 9 images with 85-995 ms saturation recovery times plus a non-saturated image, 8 mm slice thickness, 360 × 270 FOV, 192 × 108 acquisition matrix before interpolation, and 75% phase resolution. Either rate 2 parallel imaging (GRAPPA) or 6/8 partial Fourier was used for image acceleration. Regions of interest were drawn on the septum and inferior RV by two observers, avoiding the septal insertion point, fat and blood pool. Analysis was repeated 10 times per subject to evaluate T1 variability with ROI placement. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and diastolic regional wall thickness (WT), measured on bSSFP cine images, were assessed at a comparable slice location.


Analysis was performed in 5 patients with FD and 4 patients with PH (WT(LV-FD) = 11.7 mm, WT(RV-FD) = 5.7 mm, WT(LV-PH) = 10.8 mm, WT(RV-PH) = 7.5 mm), as the remaining cases had inadequate hypertrophy and spatial resolution to proceed with analysis. Sample SASHA images are shown in Figure 1. Figure 2 shows T1 values for all subjects, demonstrating lower myocardial T1 in both the LV and RV for all FD subjects (p = 0.0143 for either ventricles). Interobserver agreement (coefficient of variation) was 4.0% and 2.41% for the RV and septum, respectively. No FD subjects were positive for LGE in the inferior RV or septum; however one was positive at the RV insertion point. No PH subjects were positive for LGE in the inferior wall; however 2 showed mid-wall septal enhancement at locations within ROIs and all were positive at the RV insertion site. However, as indicated in Figure 2, septal T1 values are similar in those positive (1340.7 & 1249.7 ms) and or negative (1459.4 & 1215.0 ms) for LGE.

Figure 1
figure 1

Sample non-saturation SASHA images: Anderson-Fabry disease (top) and pulmonary hypertension (bottom).

Figure 2
figure 2

Myocardial T 1 values by ventricle and condition. Circles and line segments denote values for a given individual, and * marks cases of septal late gadolinium enhancement.


In FD patients with RV hypertrophy, both RV and LV native T1 values are reduced as compared to patients with PH and RV hypertrophy. Significant improvement in spatial resolution is required for T1 mapping of the normal right ventricle to establish healthy native RV T1 values.


The authors acknowledge financial support from CIHR, AIHS, WCHRI.


  1. Thompson Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013

  2. Sado Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013

  3. Chow MRM. 2013

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This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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Pagano, J.J., Chow, K., Khan, A. et al. Reduced native right ventricular T1 in Anderson-Fabry disease as compared to patients with pulmonary hypertension. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 16 (Suppl 1), P2 (2014).

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