Skip to main content

T1 mapping: useful for treatment monitoring in patients with senile systemic amyloidosis?


Recent reports indicate that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin in green tea, is potent to inhibit fibril formation of several amyloidogenic proteins in vitro. In vivo studies revealed reduction of left ventricular myocardial mass (LVM) after 12 months of daily consumption of 450 mg EGCG. However, the underlying process of LVM reduction, either due to reduction of amyloid or due to atrophy of cardiomyocytes, remained unknown. T1-mapping has the potential to monitor the extent of the extracellular volume (ECV). We sought to investigate the use of T1 mapping for monitoring of treatment effects in a cohort of patients with senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) treated with EGCG for 12 months.


CMR examinations were performed in 8 patients (70 ± 8 years, 7 males) with histologically proven SSA before and 12 months after daily consumption of 450 mg EGCG using a 1.5 T CMR scanner (Achieva, Philips Healthcare). Short axis slices were acquired using SSFP-sequences to measure left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction (EF) and LVM. T1-maps were created out of 11 mid-ventricular short axis views with increasing inversion times (TI; 100-4400 msec) using a single breath-hold modified Look-Locker inversion-recovery sequence (MOLLI, TR/TE = 3,5/1,8 msec, flip angle = 35°) in late diastole before and 15 minutes after injection of gadolinium-DTPA contrast agent (0.2 mmol/kg body weight). ECV was calculated using the formula given in Figure 1.

Figure 1
figure 1

T1 myo pre: native T1 relaxation time for myocardium T1 myo post: post-contrast T1 relaxation time for myocardium T1 blood pre: native T1 relaxation time for blood T1 blood post: post-contrast T1 relaxation time for blood.


After 12 months of EGCG consumption a significant decrease of LVM (-14.5 ± 12.9 g, p < 0.05, Figure 2) was observed. Moreover, a significant decrease of native T1 (-63.3 ± 64.1 ms, p < 0.05, Figure 2) was noticed. There was no significant change in ECV and EF.

figure 2

Figure 2


This is a preliminary study to evaluate T1-mapping for the monitoring of treatment effects in patients with SSA. The decrease of T1 relaxation time after 12 months of EGCG treatment might possibly indicate a reduction of amyloid load. Thus, T1-mapping might be a potential tool for monitoring further experimental therapies. However, the considerable gap between native T1 and ECV measurements remain unexplained and needs to be investigated in a future study.



Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

dem Siepen, F.a., Kristen, A.V., Steen, H. et al. T1 mapping: useful for treatment monitoring in patients with senile systemic amyloidosis?. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 16 (Suppl 1), P294 (2014).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • DOI:


  • Left Ventricular Volume
  • Daily Consumption
  • Short Axis Slice
  • EGCG Treatment
  • Amyloid Load