- Oral presentation
- Open Access
The shape of the healthy heart is optimized for vortex ring formation
© Arvidsson et al. 2016
- Published: 27 January 2016
- Vortex Ring
- Lagrangian Coherent Structure
- Healthy Heart
- Wide Size Range
- Vortex Ring Formation
16 healthy volunteers and 23 patients with heart failure (n = 12 ischemic, n = 11 non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy), underwent CMR examination at 1.5T (n = 27) or 3T (n = 8), including 4D flow. Vortex ring boundary was calculated using Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) and CUDA parallel computing. Vortex ring and LV endocardium were manually delineated, and the average distance between the delineations was measured for all time points in diastole.
In controls, regardless of LV size, the vortex ring boundary evolved close to the endocardial border (Fig 2E & 2F). By end-diastole, the vortex ring occupied on average 53% (95% CI: 49-58%) of the total LV volume. Vortex ring volume at end-diastole was strongly correlated to LV end-diastolic volume (R2 = 0.83, Fig. 2G).
In the enlarged, failing heart, the vortex boundary formed at a greater distance from the endocardium. By end diastole, the vortex ring occupied on average 35% of the ventricle (95% CI: 30-41%). Vortex ring growth was not coupled to the total LV volume (Fig. 2G).
The spatiotemporal dynamics of the healthy left ventricle is optimized to accommodate diastolic vortex ring formation and its evolution. Vortex rings are consistent across a wide size range of healthy hearts but significantly disturbed in heart failure, which increases our understanding of how fluid dynamics is coupled to, and governs cardiac shape and function. Vortex ring parameters carry implications for exercise physiology, cardiac surgery and design and implantation of prosthetic valves.
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.