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Volume 18 Supplement 1

19th Annual SCMR Scientific Sessions

  • Walking poster presentation
  • Open Access

Aging and gender effects in native T1 and extracellular volume fraction assessment using SASHA

  • 1,
  • 1,
  • 2 and
  • 1
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance201618 (Suppl 1) :Q3

https://doi.org/10.1186/1532-429X-18-S1-Q3

  • Published:

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular Risk Factor
  • Ventricular Septum
  • Cardiovascular Medication
  • Histological Measurement
  • Good General Agreement

Background

Reference values for T1 mapping-derived extracellular volume fraction (ECV) in healthy individuals are not currently well established. Histological measurements in autopsy studies have shown decreasing ECV with healthy aging in men, however recent non-invasive measurements of ECV using different T1 mapping techniques are inconsistent with respect to the effect of aging and gender, with a relatively wide range of values depending on the method. The goal of the current study was to characterize native T1 and ECV as a function of age in healthy individuals (no cardiovascular risk factors or medication) with the SAturation-recovery single-SHot Acquisition (SASHA) method (Magn Reson Med. 2014 Jun;71(6):2082-95), providing comparison to existing literature.

Methods

Well characterized healthy individuals from the Alberta HEART study (BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2014 Jul 25;14:91) underwent CMR on a Siemens 1.5T system (Sonata, Avanto) with T1 measurements using the SASHA pulse sequence. Imaging was performed on a mid-ventricular short-axis slice at baseline (pre-contrast) and ~15 minutes after intravenous administration of 0.15 mmol/kg gadobutrol. ECV was measured in the ventricular septum, calculated as (1-hct)*(Myocardium ΔR1)/(Blood ΔR1), where ΔR1 is 1/T1 post - 1/T1 pre, and hct was the most recent hematocrit.

Results

Native T1 and ECV measures were available from 44 individuals (60.7 ± 9.6 years, range 43-80, 15 male) free from cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and not on any cardiovascular medication. Average native myocardial T1 value was 1189 ± 38 ms, which was increased in women compared to men (1201 ± 29 vs. 1167 ± 44 ms, p < 0.05), however did not vary significantly with age (Figure 1A; p = 0.59). Average ECV was 22 ± 2% (range 18-28%), and did not vary significantly with age (Figure 1B; p = 0.20) or gender (men: 21 ± 2% vs. women: 22 ± 2%; p = 0.14). SASHA ECV values were similar to a previous histology (p > 0.05) study. SASHA native T1 values were higher and SASHA ECV values were lower than inversion recovery based techniques in groups free of cardiovascular risk factors (native T1 comparisons only for 1.5T; p < 0.05 for all comparisons) (Table 1). Gender and age effects are noted to be different between methods (Table 1).
Figure 1
Figure 1

A) SASHA native T 1 values vs. age. B) SASHA extracellular volume fraction (ECV) vs. age.

Conclusions

SASHA ECV values showed no dependence on age or gender and were 14-27% smaller as compared to inversion-recovery techniques, but with good general agreement to histological studies. SASHA native T1 times are 19-20% longer than inversion-recovery techniques, and though they are longer in women, there is no age dependence. Significantly different ECVs by method reflect systematic differences in blood and myocardial T1 values (native and post-contrast), consistent with previous reports (Kellman, J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2014 Jan 4;16:2). Discrepancies in the relationship between native T1 and ECV by age and gender warrant more detailed comparison of methods as the field moves towards universal age/gender reference values.
Table 1

Comparison of native T1 and extracellular volume fraction between methods

Study

Technique

Field Strength

n

% Female

Age (yrs)

ECV (%)

Gender Effect

Age Effect

Native T1 (ms)

Gender Effect

Age Effect

Pagano

SASHA

1.5T

44

66

61 ± 10

22 ± 2

No effect

No effect

1189 ± 38

Female>Male

No effect

Olivetti1

Histology

N/A

67

42

63 ± 11

21 ± 4

NR

Decreases1, men only2

-

-

-

Sado3

IR single-shot FLASH EQ-CMR

1.5T

81

48

43 (24-81)

25 ± 4

Female>Male

No effect

NR

NR

NR

Neilan4

Cine Look-Locker

3T

32

56

49 ± 15

28 ± 3

No effect

Increases

NR

NR

NR

Liu5

MOLLI

1.5T

235

39

65 ± 8

NR

No effect

No effect

NR

No effect

No effect

Dabir6

MOLLI

1.5T

34

NR

NR

25 ± 4

No effect

No effect

950 ± 21

No effect

No effect

Dabir6

MOLLI

3T

32

NR

NR

26 ± 4

No effect

No effect

1052 ± 23

No effect

No effect

Fontana7

ShMOLLI

1.5T

50

47

47 ± 17

27 ± 3

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

Piechnik8

ShMOLLI

1.5T

342

51

38 ± 15

NR

NR

NR

962 ± 25

Female>Male

Decreases in women

1-Results adapted from Figure 3; Olivetti, Circ Res. 1991 Jun;68(6):1560-8

2-Olivetti, J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995 Oct;26(4):1068-79

3-Sado, Heart. 2012 Oct;98(19):1436-41

4-Neilan, JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013 Jun;6(6):672-83

5-Liu, J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Oct 1;62(14):1280-7

6-Dabir, J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2014 Oct 21;16:69

7-Fontana, J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2012 Dec 28;14:88

8-Piechnik, J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2013 Jan 20;15:13

NR = Not Reported

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
(2)
Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada

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