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- Open Access
Analysis of right heart flow patterns in repaired Tetralogy of Fallot with 4D flow-sensitive MRI
© Francois et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
- Published: 2 February 2011
- Right Ventricle
- Inferior Vena Cava
- Right Ventricle
- Superior Vena Cava
- Right Atrium
Cardiac MRI (CMR) is used to follow patients after TOF repair to assess pulmonary regurgitation (PR), pulmonary stenosis (PS) and right ventricular (RV) function. 4D flow-sensitive MRI techniques enable visualization of complex flow patterns ,. With the ability to simultaneously acquire morphology and hemodynamics for visualization and quantification, they may improve evaluation of functional outcomes following surgery for complex CHD.
Analyze flow patterns in superior vena cava (SVC), inferior vena cava (IVC), right atrium (RA), right ventricle (RV), and main, right and left pulmonary arteries (MPA, RPA, and LPA) using 3D radially-undersampled, 4D flow-sensitive MRI.
Grading system for evaluation of right heart flow patterns
S wave > D wave
D wave > S wave
normal, single clockwise vortex
normal right-handed helix through TV
increased helicity and vorticity
uniform, laminar flow toward RVOT
uniform, laminar flow
helical or vortical flow
SVC and IVC flow was greater during diastole than systole in 8/11. Increased RA vortices were present in 7/11. RV diastolic flow was normal in 1/11. RV systolic flow was normal in 9/11. MPA, RPA, and LPA flow was helical or vortical in 6/11, 10/11, and 10/11, respectively. PR and PS were present in 10/11 and 6/11, respectively.
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