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Improved precision in SASHA T1 mapping with a variable flip angle readout
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance volume 16, Article number: M9 (2014)
The SAturation-recovery single-SHot Acquisition (SASHA) T1 mapping sequence has excellent accuracy independent of T1, T2, heart rate, and flip angle , which are known dependencies of the more commonly used MOdified Look-Locker Inversion-recovery (MOLLI) sequence. However, SASHA has a greater T1 variability (poorer precision) compared to MOLLI. A two-parameter fit, with assumed ideal saturation, has been shown to improve precision compared to the standard three-parameter fit used for SASHA, but at the expense of introducing systematic errors . We propose that a variable flip angle (VFA) readout will reduce these systematic errors and thereby allow the improved precision of a two-parameter fit while maintaining the accuracy of the three-parameter fit.
A VFA scheme was empirically designed with Bloch equation simulations to minimize two-parameter fit errors with SASHA data, consisting of scaling the prescribed flip angle for the first 45 pulses by sin(x) for π/90 < × < π/2. The first 5 data acquisitions in the pulse train were discarded, matching the number of dummy pulses with linear catalyzation in the standard SASHA sequence. SASHA, SASHA-VFA, and MOLLI T1 imaging was performed on 4 healthy volunteers (Siemens Aera 1.5T) on a mid-ventricular short-axis slice with typical bSSFP imaging readout parameters: 1.01/2.44 ms TE/TR, 8 mm slice thickness, 112 × 192 matrix size, 270 × 360 mm2 field of view, rate 2 GRAPPA with 24 in-place ACS reference lines, 78% phase resolution, and 7/8 partial Fourier for a total imaging duration of ~175 ms. SASHA datasets were acquired with 9 images having equally spaced TIs from 165-780 ms following BIR-4 saturation, plus a non-saturated image. Standard SASHA was acquired with 5 (dummy) linear catalyzation pulses and SASHA-VFA was acquired with sinusoidal scaling described above, both with a target flip angle of 70°. MOLLI data was acquired with a 5-(3)-3 configuration, 120 ms TI start, 80 ms TI increment, 35° flip angle, and a tan/tanh adiabatic inversion pulse . T1 pixel map were generated and the mean and standard deviation calculated for an ROI enclosing the entire LV myocardium.
Two-parameter SASHA overestimated myocardial T1 as compared to the three-parameter fit but with reduced variability (Table 1). Two-parameter SASHA-VFA showed similar mean T1 values to three-parameter SASHA and with substantially reduced T1 variability. Image artifacts from the bSSFP readout were consistently reduced with the SASHA-VFA sequence compared to the standard SASHA sequence, which may also contribute to the improved variability performance (Figure 1).
The SASHA sequence with VFA readout significantly reduces T1 variability and reduces image artifacts. The current study suggests that two-parameter SASHA-VFA maintains the accuracy of standard three-parameter SASHA with significantly reduced T1 variability, similar to the MOLLI sequence.
Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Women and Children's Health Research Institute, Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions.
Chow K, et al: MRM. 2013, doi:10.1002/mrm.24878
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Kellman P, et al: MRM. 2013, doi:10.1002/mrm.24793
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Chow, K., Spottiswoode, B.S., Pagano, J.J. et al. Improved precision in SASHA T1 mapping with a variable flip angle readout. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 16, M9 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1186/1532-429X-16-S1-M9
- Variable Flip Angle
- bSSFP Imaging
- Adiabatic Inversion Pulse
- Reduce Image Artifact
- Alberta Innovate