- Oral presentation
- Open Access
An isolated pig heart for the development, validation and translation of novel magnetic resonance techniques
© Schuster et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
- Published: 21 January 2010
- Cardiac Magnetic Resonance
- Myocardial Perfusion Imaging
- Late Gadolinium Enhancement Imaging
- Magnetic Resonance Technique
- Tesla Magnetic Resonance
Novel magnetic resonance (MR) techniques and imaging biomarkers are often validated in small animal models or empirically in patients. The direct translation of small animal cardiac MR imaging protocols to humans is rarely possible, while validation of novel imaging techniques in humans by tracking changes in MR biomarkers in response to externally controlled changes in blood flow, for example, is difficult, or unethical. An isolated blood-perfused pig heart model which closely resembles human physiology, anatomy and size, can be exquisitely controlled in terms of regional blood flow, oxygenation, afterload and workload, and can be imaged by the same equipment used for humans. It would therefore be a valuable tool for the development, validation and translation of novel magnetic resonance techniques.
To design and build a novel MR-compatible, explanted, blood-perfused and free-beating pig heart model and test its feasibility at a clinical 3 Tesla MR Scanner.
Measurements and Adjustments of physiological parameters in the isolated pig heart model
Oxygen probe (interstitial)
Part. Pressure (ven., art.)
Blood oxygenator, oxygenation of dialysate
Levels of pO2: fully adjustable to induce graded hypoxia
Levels of pCo2: Adjusted to pH
blood gas analysis
Tip Manometer, Flowmeter
individually for each coronary
conductance catheter, tip-manometer
Constant (Modified according to the afterload level)
Blood Gas Analysis
EMB (Histology, immunohisto-chemistry, electron microscopy)
(CPP Coronary perfusion pressure, LVP left ventricular pressure, RVP right ventricular pressure, SV stroke volume, dP/dt pressure over time/myocardial contractile function, DTF diastolic time frame, EMB endomyocardial biopsy)
We tested functional cardiac imaging (CINE), high-resolution perfusion imaging (<2 × 2 mm) using a combination of 3 Tesla, parallel imaging (SENSE) and temporal undersampling (kt), as well as late gadolinium enhancement imaging.
The technical design of an isolated pig heart model allows to represent and image in situ cardiac function ex vivo. This novel system allows for excellent control of physiological parameters, validation against gold standards, and easy translation of the methods to patients using the same equipment and imaging sequences.
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.