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Acute reperfusion intramyocardial hemorrhage leads to regional chronic iron deposition in the heart
© Kali et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Published: 30 January 2013
Intramyocardial hemorrhage commonly occurs in large reperfused myocardial infarctions. However, its long-term fate remains unexplored. We hypothesized that acute reperfusion intramyocardial hemorrhage leads to chronic iron deposition.
Fifteen patients (mean age = 58±8 years; 3 women), who underwent successful angioplasty for first STEMI, were recruited following informed consent. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) imaging (1.5T) was performed on day 3 and month 6 post-angioplasty. 2D T2* maps (6 TEs = 2.6-13.7 ms; ΔTE=2.2ms) and Late Gadolinium Enhancement (LGE) images of the entire left ventricle (LV) were acquired. Threshold-based image analysis was performed to identify remote, hemorrhagic (Hemo+) and non-hemorrhagic (Hemo-) myocardium.
Fourteen canines, subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury (3 hours of LAD occlusion followed by reperfusion), underwent CMR (1.5T) on days 3 and 56 post-I-R injury. Three sham-operated animals (Shams) were also studied using CMR at similar time points. 2D T2* maps (6 TEs = 3.4-18.4 ms; ΔTE=3.0ms) and LGE images of the entire LV were acquired. Threshold-based image analysis was performed to identify remote, Hemo+ and Hemo- myocardium. Subsequently, animals were euthanized (day 56), hearts were excised and imaged ex-vivo. Sections of Hemo+, Hemo-, remote and Sham myocardium were isolated and histology was performed. The concentration of iron ([Fe]) within each type of tissue was measured using mass spectrometry.
Acute reperfusion intramyocardial hemorrhage leads to regional chronic iron deposition within the infarct zones. T2* CMR can accurately characterize localized chronic iron deposition following reperfusion-induced myocardial hemorrhage. The clinical significance of this finding remains to be investigated.
This work was supported in part by grants from American Heart Association (SDG 0735099N) and National Heart, Lung, And Blood Institute (HL091989).
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.